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	BIRD documentation

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This documentation can have 4 forms: sgml (this is master copy), html, ASCII
text and dvi/postscript (generated from sgml using sgmltools). You should always
edit master copy.

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This is a slightly modified linuxdoc dtd. Anything in <descrip> tags is
considered definition of configuration primitives, <cf> is fragment of
configuration within normal text, <m> is "meta" information within fragment of
configuration - something in config which is not keyword.

    (set-fill-column 80)
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    Copyright 1999,2000 Pavel Machek <>, distribute under GPL version 2 or later.



<title>BIRD User's Guide
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Ondrej Filip <it/&lt;;/,
Pavel Machek <it/&lt;;/,
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Martin Mares <it/&lt;;/,
Ondrej Zajicek <it/&lt;;/
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This document contains user documentation for the BIRD Internet Routing Daemon project.
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<!-- Table of contents -->

<!-- Begin the document -->


<label id="intro">

<sect>What is BIRD
<label id="what-is-bird">

<p>The name `BIRD' is actually an acronym standing for `BIRD Internet Routing
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Daemon'. Let's take a closer look at the meaning of the name:

<p><em/BIRD/: Well, we think we have already explained that. It's an acronym
standing for `BIRD Internet Routing Daemon', you remember, don't you? :-)

<p><em/Internet Routing/: It's a program (well, a daemon, as you are going to
discover in a moment) which works as a dynamic router in an Internet type
network (that is, in a network running either the IPv4 or the IPv6 protocol).
Routers are devices which forward packets between interconnected networks in
order to allow hosts not connected directly to the same local area network to
communicate with each other. They also communicate with the other routers in the
Internet to discover the topology of the network which allows them to find
optimal (in terms of some metric) rules for forwarding of packets (which are
called routing tables) and to adapt themselves to the changing conditions such
as outages of network links, building of new connections and so on. Most of
these routers are costly dedicated devices running obscure firmware which is
hard to configure and not open to any changes (on the other hand, their special
hardware design allows them to keep up with lots of high-speed network
interfaces, better than general-purpose computer does). Fortunately, most
operating systems of the UNIX family allow an ordinary computer to act as a
router and forward packets belonging to the other hosts, but only according to a
statically configured table.

<p>A <em/Routing Daemon/ is in UNIX terminology a non-interactive program
running on background which does the dynamic part of Internet routing, that is
it communicates with the other routers, calculates routing tables and sends them
to the OS kernel which does the actual packet forwarding. There already exist
other such routing daemons: routed (RIP only), GateD (non-free),
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<HTMLURL URL="" name="Zebra"> and
<HTMLURL URL="" name="MRTD">,
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but their capabilities are limited and they are relatively hard to configure
and maintain.
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<p>BIRD is an Internet Routing Daemon designed to avoid all of these shortcomings,
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to support all the routing technology used in the today's Internet or planned to
be used in near future and to have a clean extensible architecture allowing new
routing protocols to be incorporated easily. Among other features, BIRD
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	<item>both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols
	<item>multiple routing tables
	<item>the Border Gateway Protocol (BGPv4)
	<item>the Routing Information Protocol (RIPv2)
	<item>the Open Shortest Path First protocol (OSPFv2, OSPFv3)
	<item>the Router Advertisements for IPv6 hosts
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	<item>a virtual protocol for exchange of routes between different
		routing tables on a single host
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	<item>a command-line interface allowing on-line control and inspection
		of status of the daemon
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	<item>soft reconfiguration (no need to use complex online commands to
		change the configuration, just edit the configuration file and
		notify BIRD to re-read it and it will smoothly switch itself to
		the new configuration, not disturbing routing protocols unless
		they are affected by the configuration changes)
	<item>a powerful language for route filtering
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<p>BIRD has been developed at the Faculty of Math and Physics, Charles
University, Prague, Czech Republic as a student project. It can be freely
distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

<p>BIRD has been designed to work on all UNIX-like systems. It has been
developed and tested under Linux 2.0 to 2.6, and then ported to FreeBSD, NetBSD
and OpenBSD, porting to other systems (even non-UNIX ones) should be relatively
easy due to its highly modular architecture.

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<p>BIRD supports either IPv4 or IPv6 protocol, but have to be compiled separately
for each one. Therefore, a dualstack router would run two instances of BIRD (one
for IPv4 and one for IPv6), with completely separate setups (configuration
files, tools ...).
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<sect>Installing BIRD
<label id="install">

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<p>On a recent UNIX system with GNU development tools (GCC, binutils, m4, make)
and Perl, installing BIRD should be as easy as:
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	make install
	vi /usr/local/etc/bird.conf
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<p>You can use <tt>./configure --help</tt> to get a list of configure
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options. The most important ones are: <tt/--enable-ipv6/ which enables building
of an IPv6 version of BIRD, <tt/--with-protocols=/ to produce a slightly smaller
BIRD executable by configuring out routing protocols you don't use, and
<tt/--prefix=/ to install BIRD to a place different from <file>/usr/local</file>.


<sect>Running BIRD
<label id="argv">
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<p>You can pass several command-line options to bird:

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	<tag><label id="argv-config">-c <m/config name/</tag>
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	use given configuration file instead of <it/prefix/<file>/etc/bird.conf</file>.
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	<tag><label id="argv-debug">-d</tag>
	enable debug messages and run bird in foreground.
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	<tag><label id="argv-log-file">-D <m/filename of debug log/</tag>
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	log debugging information to given file instead of stderr.

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	<tag><label id="argv-foreground">-f</tag>
	run bird in foreground.

	<tag><label id="argv-group">-g <m/group/</tag>
	use that group ID, see the next section for details.

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	<tag><label id="argv-help">-h, --help</tag>
	display command-line options to bird.

	<tag><label id="argv-local">-l</tag>
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	look for a configuration file and a communication socket in the current
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	working directory instead of in default system locations. However, paths
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	specified by options <cf/-c/, <cf/-s/ have higher priority.

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	<tag><label id="argv-parse">-p</tag>
	just parse the config file and exit. Return value is zero if the config
	file is valid, nonzero if there are some errors.

	<tag><label id="argv-pid">-P <m/name of PID file/</tag>
	create a PID file with given filename.

	<tag><label id="argv-recovery">-R</tag>
	apply graceful restart recovery after start.

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	<tag><label id="argv-socket">-s <m/name of communication socket/</tag>
	use given filename for a socket for communications with the client,
	default is <it/prefix/<file>/var/run/bird.ctl</file>.

	<tag><label id="argv-user">-u <m/user/</tag>
	drop privileges and use that user ID, see the next section for details.

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	<tag><label id="argv-version">--version</tag>
	display bird version.
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<p>BIRD writes messages about its work to log files or syslog (according to config).


<label id="privileges">

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<p>BIRD, as a routing daemon, uses several privileged operations (like setting
routing table and using raw sockets). Traditionally, BIRD is executed and runs
with root privileges, which may be prone to security problems. The recommended
way is to use a privilege restriction (options <cf/-u/, <cf/-g/). In that case
BIRD is executed with root privileges, but it changes its user and group ID to
an unprivileged ones, while using Linux capabilities to retain just required
privileges (capabilities CAP_NET_*). Note that the control socket is created
before the privileges are dropped, but the config file is read after that. The
privilege restriction is not implemented in BSD port of BIRD.

<p>An unprivileged user (as an argument to <cf/-u/ options) may be the user
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<cf/nobody/, but it is suggested to use a new dedicated user account (like
<cf/bird/). The similar considerations apply for the group option, but there is
one more condition -- the users in the same group can use <file/birdc/ to
control BIRD.

<p>Finally, there is a possibility to use external tools to run BIRD in an
environment with restricted privileges. This may need some configuration, but it
is generally easy -- BIRD needs just the standard library, privileges to read
the config file and create the control socket and the CAP_NET_* capabilities.


<chapt>About routing tables
<label id="routing-tables">

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<p>BIRD has one or more routing tables which may or may not be synchronized with
OS kernel and which may or may not be synchronized with each other (see the Pipe
protocol). Each routing table contains a list of known routes. Each route
consists of:
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	<item>network prefix this route is for (network address and prefix
		length -- the number of bits forming the network part of the
		address; also known as a netmask)
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	<item>preference of this route
	<item>IP address of router which told us about this route
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	<item>IP address of router we should forward the packets to using this
	<item>other attributes common to all routes
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	<item>dynamic attributes defined by protocols which may or may not be
		present (typically protocol metrics)
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Routing table maintains multiple entries for a network, but at most one entry
for one network and one protocol. The entry with the highest preference is used
for routing (we will call such an entry the <it/selected route/). If there are
more entries with the same preference and they are from the same protocol, the
protocol decides (typically according to metrics). If they aren't, an internal
ordering is used to break the tie. You can get the list of route attributes in
the Route attributes section.

<p>Each protocol is connected to a routing table through two filters which can
accept, reject and modify the routes. An <it/export/ filter checks routes passed
from the routing table to the protocol, an <it/import/ filter checks routes in
the opposite direction. When the routing table gets a route from a protocol, it
recalculates the selected route and broadcasts it to all protocols connected to
the table. The protocols typically send the update to other routers in the
network. Note that although most protocols are interested in receiving just
selected routes, some protocols (e.g. the <cf/Pipe/ protocol) receive and
process all entries in routing tables (accepted by filters).

<p><label id="dsc-table-sorted">Usually, a routing table just chooses a selected route
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from a list of entries for one network. But if the <cf/sorted/ option is
activated, these lists of entries are kept completely sorted (according to
preference or some protocol-dependent metric). This is needed for some features
of some protocols (e.g. <cf/secondary/ option of BGP protocol, which allows to
accept not just a selected route, but the first route (in the sorted list) that
is accepted by filters), but it is incompatible with some other features (e.g.
<cf/deterministic med/ option of BGP protocol, which activates a way of choosing
selected route that cannot be described using comparison and ordering). Minor
advantage is that routes are shown sorted in <cf/show route/, minor disadvantage
is that it is slightly more computationally expensive.

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<sect>Graceful restart
<label id="graceful-restart">
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<p>When BIRD is started after restart or crash, it repopulates routing tables in
an uncoordinated manner, like after clean start. This may be impractical in some
cases, because if the forwarding plane (i.e. kernel routing tables) remains
intact, then its synchronization with BIRD would temporarily disrupt packet
forwarding until protocols converge. Graceful restart is a mechanism that could
help with this issue. Generally, it works by starting protocols and letting them
repopulate routing tables while deferring route propagation until protocols
acknowledge their convergence. Note that graceful restart behavior have to be
configured for all relevant protocols and requires protocol-specific support
(currently implemented for Kernel and BGP protocols), it is activated for
particular boot by option <cf/-R/.


<label id="config">
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<label id="config-intro">

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<p>BIRD is configured using a text configuration file. Upon startup, BIRD reads
<it/prefix/<file>/etc/bird.conf</file> (unless the <tt/-c/ command line option
is given). Configuration may be changed at user's request: if you modify the
config file and then signal BIRD with <tt/SIGHUP/, it will adjust to the new
config. Then there's the client which allows you to talk with BIRD in an
extensive way.

<p>In the config, everything on a line after <cf/#/ or inside <cf>/* */</cf> is
a comment, whitespace characters are treated as a single space. If there's a
variable number of options, they are grouped using the <cf/{ }/ brackets. Each
option is terminated by a <cf/;/. Configuration is case sensitive. There are two
ways how to name symbols (like protocol names, filter names, constants etc.). You
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can either use a simple string starting with a letter followed by any
combination of letters and numbers (e.g. "R123", "myfilter", "bgp5") or you can
enclose the name into apostrophes (<cf/'/) and than you can use any combination
of numbers, letters. hyphens, dots and colons (e.g. "'1:strange-name'",
"'-NAME-'", "'cool::name'").

<p>Here is an example of a simple config file. It enables synchronization of
routing tables with OS kernel, scans for new network interfaces every 10 seconds
and runs RIP on all network interfaces found.

protocol kernel {
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	persist;		# Don't remove routes on BIRD shutdown
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	scan time 20;		# Scan kernel routing table every 20 seconds
	export all;		# Default is export none

protocol device {
	scan time 10;		# Scan interfaces every 10 seconds

protocol rip {
	export all;
	import all;
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	interface "*";


<sect>Global options
<label id="global-opts">
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	<tag><label id="opt-include">include "<m/filename/"</tag>
	This statement causes inclusion of a new file. <m/Filename/ could also
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	be a wildcard, in that case matching files are included in alphabetic
	order. The maximal depth is 8. Note that this statement could be used
	anywhere in the config file, not just as a top-level option.

	<tag><label id="opt-log">log "<m/filename/"|syslog [name <m/name/]|stderr all|{ <m/list of classes/ }</tag>
	Set logging of messages having the given class (either <cf/all/ or
	<cf/{ error|trace [, <m/.../] }/ etc.) into selected destination (a file specified
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	as a filename string, syslog with optional name argument, or the stderr
	output). Classes are:
	<cf/info/, <cf/warning/, <cf/error/ and <cf/fatal/ for messages about local problems,
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	<cf/debug/ for debugging messages,
	<cf/trace/ when you want to know what happens in the network,
	<cf/remote/ for messages about misbehavior of remote machines,
	<cf/auth/ about authentication failures,
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	<cf/bug/ for internal BIRD bugs.
	You may specify more than one <cf/log/ line to establish logging to
	multiple destinations. Default: log everything to the system log.

	<tag><label id="opt-debug-protocols">debug protocols all|off|{ states|routes|filters|interfaces|events|packets [, <m/.../] }</tag>
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	Set global defaults of protocol debugging options. See <cf/debug/ in the
	following section. Default: off.
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	<tag><label id="opt-debug-commands">debug commands <m/number/</tag>
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	Control logging of client connections (0 for no logging, 1 for logging
	of connects and disconnects, 2 and higher for logging of all client
	commands). Default: 0.

	<tag><label id="opt-debug-latency">debug latency <m/switch/</tag>
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	Activate tracking of elapsed time for internal events. Recent events
	could be examined using <cf/dump events/ command. Default: off.

	<tag><label id="opt-debug-latency-limit">debug latency limit <m/time/</tag>
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	If <cf/debug latency/ is enabled, this option allows to specify a limit
	for elapsed time. Events exceeding the limit are logged. Default: 1 s.

	<tag><label id="opt-watchdog-warn">watchdog warning <m/time/</tag>
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	Set time limit for I/O loop cycle. If one iteration took more time to
	complete, a warning is logged. Default: 5 s.

	<tag><label id="opt-watchdog-timeout">watchdog timeout <m/time/</tag>
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	Set time limit for I/O loop cycle. If the limit is breached, BIRD is
	killed by abort signal. The timeout has effective granularity of
	seconds, zero means disabled. Default: disabled (0).

	<tag><label id="opt-mrtdump">mrtdump "<m/filename/"</tag>
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	Set MRTdump file name. This option must be specified to allow MRTdump
	feature. Default: no dump file.

	<tag><label id="opt-mrtdump-protocols">mrtdump protocols all|off|{ states|messages [, <m/.../] }</tag>
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	Set global defaults of MRTdump options. See <cf/mrtdump/ in the
	following section. Default: off.

	<tag><label id="opt-filter">filter <m/name local variables/{ <m/commands/ }</tag>
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	Define a filter. You can learn more about filters in the following

	<tag><label id="opt-function">function <m/name/ (<m/parameters/) <m/local variables/ { <m/commands/ }</tag>
	Define a function. You can learn more about functions in the following chapter.

	<tag><label id="opt-protocol">protocol rip|ospf|bgp|<m/.../ [<m/name/ [from <m/name2/]] { <m>protocol options</m> }</tag>
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	Define a protocol instance called <cf><m/name/</cf> (or with a name like
	"rip5" generated automatically if you don't specify any
	<cf><m/name/</cf>). You can learn more about configuring protocols in
	their own chapters. When <cf>from <m/name2/</cf> expression is used,
	initial protocol options are taken from protocol or template
	<cf><m/name2/</cf> You can run more than one instance of most protocols
	(like RIP or BGP). By default, no instances are configured.

	<tag><label id="opt-template">template rip|bgp|<m/.../ [<m/name/ [from <m/name2/]] { <m>protocol options</m> }</tag>
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	Define a protocol template instance called <m/name/ (or with a name like
	"bgp1" generated automatically if you don't specify any	<m/name/).
	Protocol templates can be used to group common options when many
	similarly configured protocol instances are to be defined. Protocol
	instances (and other templates) can use templates by using <cf/from/
	expression and the name of the template. At the moment templates (and
	<cf/from/ expression) are not implemented for OSPF protocol.

	<tag><label id="opt-define">define <m/constant/ = <m/expression/</tag>
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	Define a constant. You can use it later in every place you could use a
	value of the same type. Besides, there are some predefined numeric
	constants based on /etc/iproute2/rt_* files. A list of defined constants
	can be seen (together with other symbols) using 'show symbols' command.

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	<tag><label id="opt-router-id">router id <m/IPv4 address/</tag>
	Set BIRD's router ID. It's a world-wide unique identification of your
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	router, usually one of router's IPv4 addresses. Default: in IPv4
	version, the lowest IP address of a non-loopback interface. In IPv6
	version, this option is mandatory.

	<tag><label id="opt-router-id-from">router id from [-] [ "<m/mask/" ] [ <m/prefix/ ] [, <m/.../]</tag>
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	Set BIRD's router ID based on an IP address of an interface specified by
	an interface pattern. The option is applicable for IPv4 version only.
	See <ref id="proto-iface" name="interface"> section for detailed
	description of interface patterns with extended clauses.

	<tag><label id="opt-listen-bgp">listen bgp [address <m/address/] [port <m/port/] [dual]</tag>
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	This option allows to specify address and port where BGP protocol should
	listen. It is global option as listening socket is common to all BGP
	instances. Default is to listen on all addresses ( and port 179.
	In IPv6 mode, option <cf/dual/ can be used to specify that BGP socket
	should accept both IPv4 and IPv6 connections (but even in that case,
	BIRD would accept IPv6 routes only). Such behavior was default in older
	versions of BIRD.
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	<tag><label id="opt-graceful-restart">graceful restart wait <m/number/</tag>
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	During graceful restart recovery, BIRD waits for convergence of routing
	protocols. This option allows to specify a timeout for the recovery to
	prevent waiting indefinitely if some protocols cannot converge. Default:
	240 seconds.

	<tag><label id="opt-timeformat">timeformat route|protocol|base|log "<m/format1/" [<m/limit/ "<m/format2/"]</tag>
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	This option allows to specify a format of date/time used by BIRD. The
	first argument specifies for which purpose such format is used.
	<cf/route/ is a format used in 'show route' command output,
	<cf/protocol/ is used in 'show protocols' command output, <cf/base/ is
	used for other commands and <cf/log/ is used in a log file.

	"<m/format1/" is a format string using <it/strftime(3)/ notation (see
	<it/man strftime/ for details). <m/limit> and "<m/format2/" allow to
	specify the second format string for times in past deeper than <m/limit/
 	seconds. There are few shorthands: <cf/iso long/ is a ISO 8601 date/time
	format (YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss) that can be also specified using <cf/"%F %T"/.
	<cf/iso short/ is a variant of ISO 8601 that uses just the time format
	(hh:mm:ss) for near times (up to 20 hours in the past) and the date
	format (YYYY-MM-DD) for far times. This is a shorthand for
	<cf/"%T" 72000 "%F"/.

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	By default, BIRD uses the <cf/iso short/ format for <cf/route/ and
	<cf/protocol/ times, and the <cf/iso long/ format for <cf/base/ and
	<cf/log/ times.

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	In pre-1.4.0 versions, BIRD used an short, ad-hoc format for <cf/route/
	and <cf/protocol/ times, and a <cf/iso long/ similar format (DD-MM-YYYY
	hh:mm:ss) for <cf/base/ and <cf/log/. These timeformats could be set by
	<cf/old short/ and <cf/old long/ compatibility shorthands.

	<tag><label id="opt-table">table <m/name/ [sorted]</tag>
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	Create a new routing table. The default routing table is created
	implicitly, other routing tables have to be added by this command.
	Option <cf/sorted/ can be used to enable sorting of routes, see
	<ref id="dsc-table-sorted" name="sorted table"> description for details.
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	<tag><label id="opt-roa-table">roa table <m/name/ [ { <m/roa table options .../ } ]</tag>
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	Create a new ROA (Route Origin Authorization) table. ROA tables can be
	used to validate route origination of BGP routes. A ROA table contains
	ROA entries, each consist of a network prefix, a max prefix length and
	an AS number. A ROA entry specifies prefixes which could be originated
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	by that AS number. ROA tables could be filled with data from RPKI (<rfc
	id="6480">) or from public databases like Whois. ROA tables are
	examined by <cf/roa_check()/ operator in filters.
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	Currently, there is just one option, <cf>roa <m/prefix/ max <m/num/ as
	<m/num/</cf>, which can be used to populate the ROA table with static
	ROA entries. The option may be used multiple times. Other entries can be
	added dynamically by <cf/add roa/ command.

	<tag><label id="opt-eval">eval <m/expr/</tag>
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	Evaluates given filter expression. It is used by us for	testing of filters.
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<sect>Protocol options
<label id="protocol-opts">

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<p>For each protocol instance, you can configure a bunch of options. Some of
them (those described in this section) are generic, some are specific to the
protocol (see sections talking about the protocols).

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<p>Several options use a <m/switch/ argument. It can be either <cf/on/,
<cf/yes/ or a numeric expression with a non-zero value for the option to be
enabled or <cf/off/, <cf/no/ or a numeric expression evaluating to zero to
disable it. An empty <m/switch/ is equivalent to <cf/on/ ("silence means

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	<tag><label id="proto-preference">preference <m/expr/</tag>
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	Sets the preference of routes generated by this protocol. Default:
	protocol dependent.
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	<tag><label id="proto-disabled">disabled <m/switch/</tag>
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	Disables the protocol. You can change the disable/enable status from the
	command line interface without needing to touch the configuration.
	Disabled protocols are not activated. Default: protocol is enabled.
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	<tag><label id="proto-debug">debug all|off|{ states|routes|filters|interfaces|events|packets [, <m/.../] }</tag>
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	Set protocol debugging options. If asked, each protocol is capable of
	writing trace messages about its work to the log (with category
	<cf/trace/). You can either request printing of <cf/all/ trace messages
	or only of the types selected: <cf/states/ for protocol state changes
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	(protocol going up, down, starting, stopping etc.), <cf/routes/ for
	routes exchanged with the routing table, <cf/filters/ for details on
	route filtering, <cf/interfaces/ for interface change events sent to the
	protocol, <cf/events/ for events internal to the protocol and <cf/packets/
	for packets sent and received by the protocol. Default: off.
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	<tag><label id="proto-mrtdump">mrtdump all|off|{ states|messages [, <m/.../] }</tag>
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	Set protocol MRTdump flags. MRTdump is a standard binary format for
	logging information from routing protocols and daemons. These flags
	control what kind of information is logged from the protocol to the
	MRTdump file (which must be specified by global <cf/mrtdump/ option, see
	the previous section). Although these flags are similar to flags of
	<cf/debug/ option, their meaning is different and protocol-specific. For
	BGP protocol, <cf/states/ logs BGP state changes and <cf/messages/ logs
	received BGP messages. Other protocols does not support MRTdump yet.

	<tag><label id="proto-router-id">router id <m/IPv4 address/</tag>
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	This option can be used to override global router id for a given
	protocol. Default: uses global router id.

	<tag><label id="proto-import">import all | none | filter <m/name/ | filter { <m/filter commands/ } | where <m/filter expression/</tag>
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	Specify a filter to be used for filtering routes coming from the
	protocol to the routing table. <cf/all/ is shorthand for <cf/where true/
	and <cf/none/ is shorthand for <cf/where false/. Default: <cf/all/.

	<tag><label id="proto-export">export <m/filter/</tag>
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	This is similar to the <cf>import</cf> keyword, except that it works in
	the direction from the routing table to the protocol. Default: <cf/none/.
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	<tag><label id="proto-import-keep-filtered">import keep filtered <m/switch/</tag>
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	Usually, if an import filter rejects a route, the route is forgotten.
	When this option is active, these routes are kept in the routing table,
	but they are hidden and not propagated to other protocols. But it is
	possible to show them using <cf/show route filtered/. Note that this
	option does not work for the pipe protocol. Default: off.

	<tag><label id="proto-import-limit">import limit [<m/number/ | off ] [action warn | block | restart | disable]</tag>
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	Specify an import route limit (a maximum number of routes imported from
	the protocol) and optionally the action to be taken when the limit is
	hit. Warn action just prints warning log message. Block action discards
	new routes coming from the protocol. Restart and disable actions shut
	the protocol down like appropriate commands. Disable is the default
	action if an action is not explicitly specified. Note that limits are
	reset during protocol reconfigure, reload or restart. Default: <cf/off/.

	<tag><label id="proto-receive-limit">receive limit [<m/number/ | off ] [action warn | block | restart | disable]</tag>
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	Specify an receive route limit (a maximum number of routes received from
	the protocol and remembered). It works almost identically to <cf>import
	limit</cf> option, the only difference is that if <cf/import keep
	filtered/ option is active, filtered routes are counted towards the
	limit and blocked routes are forgotten, as the main purpose of the
	receive limit is to protect routing tables from overflow. Import limit,
	on the contrary, counts accepted routes only and routes blocked by the
	limit are handled like filtered routes. Default: <cf/off/.

	<tag><label id="proto-export-limit">export limit [ <m/number/ | off ] [action warn | block | restart | disable]</tag>
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	Specify an export route limit, works similarly to the <cf>import
	limit</cf> option, but for the routes exported to the protocol. This
	option is experimental, there are some problems in details of its
	behavior -- the number of exported routes can temporarily exceed the
	limit without triggering it during protocol reload, exported routes
	counter ignores route blocking and block action also blocks route
	updates of already accepted routes -- and these details will probably
	change in the future. Default: <cf/off/.

	<tag><label id="proto-description">description "<m/text/"</tag>
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	This is an optional description of the protocol. It is displayed as a
	part of the output of 'show route all' command.

	<tag><label id="proto-table">table <m/name/</tag>
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	Connect this protocol to a non-default routing table.
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	<tag><label id="proto-vrf">vrf "<m/text/"</tag>
	Associate the protocol with specific VRF. The protocol will be
	restricted to interfaces assigned to the VRF and will use sockets bound
	to the VRF. Appropriate VRF interface must exist on OS level. For kernel
	protocol, an appropriate table still must be explicitly selected by
	<cf/table/ option. Note that the VRF support in BIRD and Linux kernel
	(4.11) is still in development and is currently problematic outside of
	multihop BGP.
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<p>There are several options that give sense only with certain protocols:
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	<tag><label id="proto-iface">interface [-] [ "<m/mask/" ] [ <m/prefix/ ] [, <m/.../] [ { <m/option/; [<m/.../] } ]</tag>
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	Specifies a set of interfaces on which the protocol is activated with
	given interface-specific options. A set of interfaces specified by one
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	interface option is described using an interface pattern. The interface
	pattern consists of a sequence of clauses (separated by commas), each
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	clause is a mask specified as a shell-like pattern. Interfaces are
	matched by their name.
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	An interface matches the pattern if it matches any of its clauses. If
	the clause begins with <cf/-/, matching interfaces are excluded. Patterns
	are processed left-to-right, thus <cf/interface "eth0", -"eth*", "*";/
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	means eth0 and all non-ethernets.

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	Some protocols (namely OSPFv2 and Direct) support extended clauses that
	may contain a mask, a prefix, or both of them. An interface matches such
	clause if its name matches the mask (if specified) and its address
	matches the prefix (if specified). Extended clauses are used when the
	protocol handles multiple addresses on an interface independently.

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	An interface option can be used more times with different interface-specific
	options, in that case for given interface the first matching interface
	option is used.

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	This option is allowed in Babel, BFD, Direct, OSPF, RAdv and RIP
	protocols, but in OSPF protocol it is used in the <cf/area/ subsection.
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	Default: none.


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	<cf>interface "*" { type broadcast; };</cf> - start the protocol on all
	interfaces with <cf>type broadcast</cf> option.
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	<cf>interface "eth1", "eth4", "eth5" { type ptp; };</cf> - start the
	protocol on enumerated interfaces with <cf>type ptp</cf> option.

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	<cf>interface -,;</cf> - start the protocol
	on all interfaces that have address from, but not from
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	<cf>interface -,;</cf> - start the protocol
	on all interfaces that have address from, but not from
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	<cf>interface "eth*";</cf> - start the protocol on all
	ethernet interfaces that have address from

	<tag><label id="proto-tx-class">tx class|dscp <m/num/</tag>
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	This option specifies the value of ToS/DS/Class field in IP headers of
	the outgoing protocol packets. This may affect how the protocol packets
	are processed by the network relative to the other network traffic. With
	<cf/class/ keyword, the value (0-255) is used for the whole ToS/Class
	octet (but two bits reserved for ECN are ignored). With	<cf/dscp/
	keyword, the value (0-63) is used just for the DS field in the octet.
	Default value is 0xc0 (DSCP 0x30 - CS6).

	<tag><label id="proto-tx-priority">tx priority <m/num/</tag>
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	This option specifies the local packet priority. This may affect how the
	protocol packets are processed in the local TX queues. This option is
	Linux specific. Default value is 7 (highest priority, privileged traffic).

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	<tag><label id="proto-pass">password "<m/password/" [ { <m>password options</m> } ]</tag>
	Specifies a password that can be used by the protocol as a shared secret
	key. Password option can be used more times to specify more passwords.
	If more passwords are specified, it is a protocol-dependent decision
	which one is really used. Specifying passwords does not mean that
	authentication is enabled, authentication can be enabled by separate,
	protocol-dependent <cf/authentication/ option.

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	This option is allowed in BFD, OSPF and RIP protocols. BGP has also
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	<cf/password/ option, but it is slightly different and described
	Default: none.

<p>Password option can contain section with some (not necessary all) password sub-options:

	<tag><label id="proto-pass-id">id <M>num</M></tag>
	ID of the password, (1-255). If it is not used, BIRD will choose ID based
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	on an order of the password item in the interface. For example, second
	password item in one interface will have default ID 2. ID is used by
	some routing protocols to identify which password was used to
	authenticate protocol packets.
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	<tag><label id="proto-pass-gen-from">generate from "<m/time/"</tag>
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	The start time of the usage of the password for packet signing.
	The format of <cf><m/time/</cf> is <tt>dd-mm-yyyy HH:MM:SS</tt>.
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	<tag><label id="proto-pass-gen-to">generate to "<m/time/"</tag>
	The last time of the usage of the password for packet signing.
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	<tag><label id="proto-pass-accept-from">accept from "<m/time/"</tag>
	The start time of the usage of the password for packet verification.
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	<tag><label id="proto-pass-accept-to">accept to "<m/time/"</tag>
	The last time of the usage of the password for packet verification.
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	<tag><label id="proto-pass-from">from "<m/time/"</tag>
	Shorthand for setting both <cf/generate from/ and <cf/accept from/.

	<tag><label id="proto-pass-to">to "<m/time/"</tag>
	Shorthand for setting both <cf/generate to/ and <cf/accept to/.

	<tag><label id="proto-pass-algorithm">algorithm ( keyed md5 | keyed sha1 | hmac sha1 | hmac sha256 | hmac sha384 | hmac sha512 )</tag>
	The message authentication algorithm for the password when cryptographic
	authentication is enabled. The default value depends on the protocol.
	For RIP and OSPFv2 it is Keyed-MD5 (for compatibility), for OSPFv3
	protocol it is HMAC-SHA-256.


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<chapt>Remote control
<label id="remote-control">
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<p>You can use the command-line client <file>birdc</file> to talk with a running
BIRD. Communication is done using a <file/bird.ctl/ UNIX domain socket (unless
changed with the <tt/-s/ option given to both the server and the client). The
commands can perform simple actions such as enabling/disabling of protocols,
telling BIRD to show various information, telling it to show routing table
filtered by filter, or asking BIRD to reconfigure. Press <tt/?/ at any time to
get online help. Option <tt/-r/ can be used to enable a restricted mode of BIRD
client, which allows just read-only commands (<cf/show .../). Option <tt/-v/ can
be passed to the client, to make it dump numeric return codes along with the
messages. You do not necessarily need to use <file/birdc/ to talk to BIRD, your
own applications could do that, too -- the format of communication between BIRD
and <file/birdc/ is stable (see the programmer's documentation).

<p>There is also lightweight variant of BIRD client called <file/birdcl/, which
does not support command line editing and history and has minimal dependencies.
This is useful for running BIRD in resource constrained environments, where
Readline library (required for regular BIRD client) is not available.
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<p>Many commands have the <m/name/ of the protocol instance as an argument.
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This argument can be omitted if there exists only a single instance.

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<p>Here is a brief list of supported functions:
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	<tag><label id="cli-show-status">show status</tag>
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	Show router status, that is BIRD version, uptime and time from last
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	<tag><label id="cli-show-interfaces">show interfaces [summary]</tag>
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	Show the list of interfaces. For each interface, print its type, state,
	MTU and addresses assigned.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-protocols">show protocols [all]</tag>
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	Show list of protocol instances along with tables they are connected to
	and protocol status, possibly giving verbose information, if <cf/all/ is

	<tag><label id="cli-show-ospf-iface">show ospf interface [<m/name/] ["<m/interface/"]</tag>
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	Show detailed information about OSPF interfaces.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-ospf-neighbors">show ospf neighbors [<m/name/] ["<m/interface/"]</tag>
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	Show a list of OSPF neighbors and a state of adjacency to them.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-ospf-state">show ospf state [all] [<m/name/]</tag>
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	Show detailed information about OSPF areas based on a content of the
	link-state database. It shows network topology, stub networks,
	aggregated networks and routers from other areas and external routes.
	The command shows information about reachable network nodes, use option
	<cf/all/ to show information about all network nodes in the link-state

	<tag><label id="cli-show-ospf-topology">show ospf topology [all] [<m/name/]</tag>
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	Show a topology of OSPF areas based on a content of the link-state
	database. It is just a stripped-down version of 'show ospf state'.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-ospf-lsadb">show ospf lsadb [global | area <m/id/ | link] [type <m/num/] [lsid <m/id/] [self | router <m/id/] [<m/name/] </tag>
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	Show contents of an OSPF LSA database. Options could be used to filter

	<tag><label id="cli-show-rip-interfaces">show rip interfaces [<m/name/] ["<m/interface/"]</tag>
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	Show detailed information about RIP interfaces.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-rip-neighbors">show rip neighbors [<m/name/] ["<m/interface/"]</tag>
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	Show a list of RIP neighbors and associated state.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-static">show static [<m/name/]</tag>
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	Show detailed information about static routes.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-bfd-sessions">show bfd sessions [<m/name/]</tag>
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	Show information about BFD sessions.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-symbols">show symbols [table|filter|function|protocol|template|roa|<m/symbol/]</tag>
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	Show the list of symbols defined in the configuration (names of
	protocols, routing tables etc.).
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	<tag><label id="cli-show-route">show route [[for] <m/prefix/|<m/IP/] [table <m/t/] [filter <m/f/|where <m/c/] [(export|preexport|noexport) <m/p/] [protocol <m/p/] [<m/options/]</tag>
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	Show contents of a routing table (by default of the main one or the
	table attached to a respective protocol), that is routes, their metrics
	and (in case the <cf/all/ switch is given) all their attributes.
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	<p>You can specify a <m/prefix/ if you want to print routes for a
	specific network. If you use <cf>for <m/prefix or IP/</cf>, you'll get
	the entry which will be used for forwarding of packets to the given
	destination. By default, all routes for each network are printed with
	the selected one at the top, unless <cf/primary/ is given in which case
	only the selected route is shown.

	<p>You can also ask for printing only routes processed and accepted by
	a given filter (<cf>filter <m/name/</cf> or <cf>filter { <m/filter/ }
	</cf> or matching a given condition (<cf>where <m/condition/</cf>).
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	The <cf/export/, <cf/preexport/ and <cf/noexport/ switches ask for
	printing of routes that are exported to the specified protocol.
	With <cf/preexport/, the export filter of the protocol is skipped.
	With <cf/noexport/, routes rejected by the export filter are printed
	instead. Note that routes not exported to the protocol for other reasons
	(e.g. secondary routes or routes imported from that protocol) are not
	printed even with <cf/noexport/.
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	<p>You can also select just routes added by a specific protocol.
	<cf>protocol <m/p/</cf>.

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	<p>If BIRD is configured to keep filtered routes (see <cf/import keep
	filtered/ option), you can show them instead of routes by using
	<cf/filtered/ switch.

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	<p>The <cf/stats/ switch requests showing of route statistics (the
	number of networks, number of routes before and after filtering). If
	you use <cf/count/ instead, only the statistics will be printed.

	<tag><label id="cli-show-roa">show roa [<m/prefix/ | in <m/prefix/ | for <m/prefix/] [as <m/num/] [table <m/t/]</tag>
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	Show contents of a ROA table (by default of the first one). You can
	specify a <m/prefix/ to print ROA entries for a specific network. If you
	use <cf>for <m/prefix/</cf>, you'll get all entries relevant for route
	validation of the network prefix; i.e., ROA entries whose prefixes cover
	the network prefix. Or you can use <cf>in <m/prefix/</cf> to get ROA
	entries covered by the network prefix. You could also use <cf/as/ option
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	to show just entries for given AS.

	<tag><label id="cli-add-roa">add roa <m/prefix/ max <m/num/ as <m/num/ [table <m/t/]</tag>
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	Add a new ROA entry to a ROA table. Such entry is called <it/dynamic/
	compared to <it/static/ entries specified in the config file. These
	dynamic entries survive reconfiguration.

	<tag><label id="cli-delete-roa">delete roa <m/prefix/ max <m/num/ as <m/num/ [table <m/t/]</tag>
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	Delete the specified ROA entry from a ROA table. Only dynamic ROA
	entries (i.e., the ones added by <cf/add roa/ command) can be deleted.

	<tag><label id="cli-flush-roa">flush roa [table <m/t/]</tag>
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	Remove all dynamic ROA entries from a ROA table.

	<tag><label id="cli-configure">configure [soft] ["<m/config file/"] [timeout [<m/num/]]</tag>
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	Reload configuration from a given file. BIRD will smoothly switch itself
	to the new configuration, protocols are reconfigured if possible,
	restarted otherwise. Changes in filters usually lead to restart of
	affected protocols.

	If <cf/soft/ option is used, changes in filters does not cause BIRD to
	restart affected protocols, therefore already accepted routes (according
	to old filters) would be still propagated, but new routes would be
	processed according to the new filters.

	If <cf/timeout/ option is used, config timer is activated. The new
	configuration could be either confirmed using <cf/configure confirm/
	command, or it will be reverted to the old one when the config timer
	expires. This is useful for cases when reconfiguration breaks current
	routing and a router becomes inaccessible for an administrator. The
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	config timeout expiration is equivalent to <cf/configure undo/
	command. The timeout duration could be specified, default is 300 s.

	<tag><label id="cli-configure-confirm">configure confirm</tag>
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	Deactivate the config undo timer and therefore confirm the current

	<tag><label id="cli-configure-undo">configure undo</tag>
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	Undo the last configuration change and smoothly switch back to the
	previous (stored) configuration. If the last configuration change was
	soft, the undo change is also soft. There is only one level of undo, but
	in some specific cases when several reconfiguration requests are given
	immediately in a row and the intermediate ones are skipped then the undo
	also skips them back.

	<tag><label id="cli-configure-check">configure check ["<m/config file/"]</tag>
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	Read and parse given config file, but do not use it. useful for checking
	syntactic and some semantic validity of an config file.

	<tag><label id="cli-enable-disable-restart">enable|disable|restart <m/name/|"<m/pattern/"|all</tag>
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	Enable, disable or restart a given protocol instance, instances matching
	the <cf><m/pattern/</cf> or <cf/all/ instances.

	<tag><label id="cli-reload">reload [in|out] <m/name/|"<m/pattern/"|all</tag>
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	Reload a given protocol instance, that means re-import routes from the
	protocol instance and re-export preferred routes to the instance. If
	<cf/in/ or <cf/out/ options are used, the command is restricted to one
	direction (re-import or re-export).

	This command is useful if appropriate filters have changed but the
	protocol instance was not restarted (or reloaded), therefore it still
	propagates the old set of routes. For example when <cf/configure soft/
	command was used to change filters.

	Re-export always succeeds, but re-import is protocol-dependent and might
	fail (for example, if BGP neighbor does not support route-refresh
	extension). In that case, re-export is also skipped. Note that for the
	pipe protocol, both directions are always reloaded together (<cf/in/ or
	<cf/out/ options are ignored in that case).

	<tag><label id="cli-down">down</tag>
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	Shut BIRD down.

	<tag><label id="cli-debug">debug <m/protocol/|<m/pattern/|all all|off|{ states|routes|filters|events|packets [, <m/.../] }</tag>
	Control protocol debugging.

	<tag><label id="cli-dump">dump resources|sockets|interfaces|neighbors|attributes|routes|protocols</tag>
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	Dump contents of internal data structures to the debugging output.

	<tag><label id="cli-echo">echo all|off|{ <m/list of log classes/ } [ <m/buffer-size/ ]</tag>
	Control echoing of log messages to the command-line output.
	See <ref id="opt-log" name="log option"> for a list of log classes.

	<tag><label id="cli-eval">eval <m/expr/</tag>
	Evaluate given expression.
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<label id="filters">

<label id="filters-intro">

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<p>BIRD contains a simple programming language. (No, it can't yet read mail :-).
There are two objects in this language: filters and functions. Filters are
interpreted by BIRD core when a route is being passed between protocols and
routing tables. The filter language contains control structures such as if's and
switches, but it allows no loops. An example of a filter using many features can
be found in <file>filter/test.conf</file>.

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<p>Filter gets the route, looks at its attributes and modifies some of them if
it wishes. At the end, it decides whether to pass the changed route through
(using <cf/accept/) or whether to <cf/reject/ it. A simple filter looks like

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filter not_too_far
int var;
	if defined( rip_metric ) then
		var = rip_metric;
	else {
		var = 1;
		rip_metric = 1;
	if rip_metric &gt; 10 then
		reject "RIP metric is too big";
		accept "ok";

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<p>As you can see, a filter has a header, a list of local variables, and a body.
The header consists of the <cf/filter/ keyword followed by a (unique) name of
filter. The list of local variables consists of <cf><M>type name</M>;</cf>
pairs where each pair defines one local variable. The body consists of <cf>
{ <M>statements</M> }</cf>. Each <m/statement/ is terminated by a <cf/;/. You
can group several statements to a single compound statement by using braces
(<cf>{ <M>statements</M> }</cf>) which is useful if you want to make a bigger
block of code conditional.

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<p>BIRD supports functions, so that you don't have to repeat the same blocks of
code over and over. Functions can have zero or more parameters and they can have
local variables. Recursion is not allowed. Function definitions look like this:
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function name ()
int local_variable;
	local_variable = 5;

function with_parameters (int parameter)
	print parameter;

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<p>Unlike in C, variables are declared after the <cf/function/ line, but before
the first <cf/{/. You can't declare variables in nested blocks. Functions are
called like in C: <cf>name(); with_parameters(5);</cf>. Function may return
values using the <cf>return <m/[expr]/</cf> command. Returning a value exits
from current function (this is similar to C).

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<p>Filters are declared in a way similar to functions except they can't have
explicit parameters. They get a route table entry as an implicit parameter, it
is also passed automatically to any functions called. The filter must terminate
with either <cf/accept/ or <cf/reject/ statement. If there's a runtime error in
filter, the route is rejected.

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<p>A nice trick to debug filters is to use <cf>show route filter <m/name/</cf>
from the command line client. An example session might look like:
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pavel@bug:~/bird$ ./birdc -s bird.ctl
BIRD 0.0.0 ready.
bird> show route         dev eth0 [direct1 23:21] (240)    dev tunl1 [direct1 23:21] (240)        dev lo [direct1 23:21] (240)
bird> show route ?
show route [<prefix>] [table <t>] [filter <f>] [all] [primary]...
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bird> show route filter { if &tilde; net then accept; }
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<sect>Data types
<label id="data-types">

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<p>Each variable and each value has certain type. Booleans, integers and enums
are incompatible with each other (that is to prevent you from shooting in the
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	<tag><label id="type-bool">bool</tag>
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	This is a boolean type, it can have only two values, <cf/true/ and
	<cf/false/. Boolean is the only type you can use in <cf/if/ statements.

	<tag><label id="type-int">int</tag>
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	This is a general integer type. It is an unsigned 32bit type; i.e., you
	can expect it to store values from 0 to 4294967295. Overflows are not
	checked. You can use <cf/0x1234/ syntax to write hexadecimal values.

	<tag><label id="type-pair">pair</tag>
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	This is a pair of two short integers. Each component can have values
	from 0 to 65535. Literals of this type are written as <cf/(1234,5678)/.
	The same syntax can also be used to construct a pair from two arbitrary
	integer expressions (for example <cf/(1+2,a)/).

	<tag><label id="type-quad">quad</tag>
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	This is a dotted quad of numbers used to represent router IDs (and
	others). Each component can have a value from 0 to 255. Literals of
	this type are written like IPv4 addresses.

	<tag><label id="type-string">string</tag>
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	This is a string of characters. There are no ways to modify strings in
	filters. You can pass them between functions, assign them to variables
	of type <cf/string/, print such variables, use standard string
	comparison operations (e.g. <cf/=, !=, &lt;, &gt;, &lt;=, &gt;=/), but
	you can't concatenate two strings. String literals are written as
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	<cf/"This is a string constant"/. Additionally matching (<cf/&tilde;,
	!&tilde;/) operators could be used to match a string value against
	a shell pattern (represented also as a string).

	<tag><label id="type-ip">ip</tag>
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	This type can hold a single IP address. Depending on the compile-time
	configuration of BIRD you are using, it is either an IPv4 or IPv6
	address. IP addresses are written in the standard notation
	(<cf/ or <cf/fec0:3:4::1/). You can apply special operator
	<cf>.mask(<M>num</M>)</cf> on values of type ip. It masks out all but
	first <cf><M>num</M></cf> bits from the IP address. So
	<cf/ = is true.

	<tag><label id="type-prefix">prefix</tag>
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	This type can hold a network prefix consisting of IP address and prefix
	length. Prefix literals are written as <cf><m/ipaddress//<m/pxlen/</cf>,
	or <cf><m>ipaddress</m>/<m>netmask</m></cf>. There are two special
	operators on prefixes: <cf/.ip/ which extracts the IP address from the
	pair, and <cf/.len/, which separates prefix length from the pair.
	So <cf> = 16</cf> is true.

	<tag><label id="type-ec">ec</tag>
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	This is a specialized type used to represent BGP extended community
	values. It is essentially a 64bit value, literals of this type are
	usually written as <cf>(<m/kind/, <m/key/, <m/value/)</cf>, where
	<cf/kind/ is a kind of extended community (e.g. <cf/rt/ / <cf/ro/ for a
	route target / route origin communities), the format and possible values
	of <cf/key/ and <cf/value/ are usually integers, but it depends on the
	used kind. Similarly to pairs, ECs can be constructed using expressions
	for <cf/key/ and <cf/value/ parts, (e.g. <cf/(ro, myas, 3*10)/, where
	<cf/myas/ is an integer variable).

	<tag><label id="type-lc">lc</tag>
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	This is a specialized type used to represent BGP large community
	values. It is essentially a triplet of 32bit values, where the first
	value is reserved for the AS number of the issuer, while meaning of
	remaining parts is defined by the issuer. Literals of this type are
	written as <cf/(123, 456, 789)/, with any integer values. Similarly to
	pairs, LCs can be constructed using expressions for its parts, (e.g.
	<cf/(myas, 10+20, 3*10)/, where <cf/myas/ is an integer variable).

	<tag><label id="type-set">int|pair|quad|ip|prefix|ec|lc|enum set</tag>
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	Filters recognize four types of sets. Sets are similar to strings: you
	can pass them around but you can't modify them. Literals of type <cf>int
	set</cf> look like <cf> [ 1, 2, 5..7 ]</cf>. As you can see, both simple
	values and ranges are permitted in sets.

	For pair sets, expressions like <cf/(123,*)/ can be used to denote
	ranges (in that case <cf/(123,0)..(123,65535)/). You can also use
	<cf/(123,5..100)/ for range <cf/(123,5)..(123,100)/. You can also use
	<cf/*/ and <cf/a..b/ expressions in the first part of a pair, note that
	such expressions are translated to a set of intervals, which may be
	memory intensive. E.g. <cf/(*,4..20)/ is translated to <cf/(0,4..20),
	(1,4..20), (2,4..20), ... (65535, 4..20)/.

	EC sets use similar expressions like pair sets, e.g. <cf/(rt, 123,
	10..20)/ or <cf/(ro, 123, *)/. Expressions requiring the translation
	(like <cf/(rt, *, 3)/) are not allowed (as they usually have 4B range
	for ASNs).

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	Also LC sets use similar expressions like pair sets. You can use ranges
	and wildcards, but if one field uses that, more specific (later) fields
	must be wildcards. E.g., <cf/(10, 20..30, *)/ or <cf/(10, 20, 30..40)/
	is valid, while <cf/(10, *, 20..30)/ or <cf/(10, 20..30, 40)/ is not

	You can also use expressions for int, pair, EC and LC set values.
	However, it must be possible to evaluate these expressions before daemon
	boots. So you can use only constants inside them. E.g.

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	 define one=1;
	 define myas=64500;
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	 int set odds;
	 pair set ps;
	 ec set es;

	 odds = [ one, 2+1, 6-one, 2*2*2-1, 9, 11 ];
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	 ps = [ (1,one+one), (3,4)..(4,8), (5,*), (6,3..6), (7..9,*) ];
	 es = [ (rt, myas, 3*10), (rt, myas+one, 0..16*16*16-1), (ro, myas+2, *) ];

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	Sets of prefixes are special: their literals does not allow ranges, but
	allows prefix patterns that are written
	as <cf><M>ipaddress</M>/<M>pxlen</M>{<M>low</M>,<M>high</M>}</cf>.
	Prefix <cf><m>ip1</m>/<m>len1</m></cf> matches prefix
	pattern <cf><m>ip2</m>/<m>len2</m>{<m>l</m>,<m>h</m>}</cf> if the
	first <cf>min(len1, len2)</cf> bits of <cf/ip1/ and <cf/ip2/ are
	identical and <cf>len1 &lt;= ip1 &lt;= len2</cf>. A valid prefix pattern
	has to satisfy <cf>low &lt;= high</cf>, but <cf/pxlen/ is not
	constrained by <cf/low/ or <cf/high/. Obviously, a prefix matches a
	prefix set literal if it matches any prefix pattern in the prefix set

	There are also two shorthands for prefix patterns: <cf><m/address//<m/len/+</cf>
	is a shorthand for <cf><m/address//<m/len/{<m/len/,<m/maxlen/}</cf>
	(where <cf><m/maxlen/</cf> is 32 for IPv4 and 128 for IPv6), that means
	network prefix <cf><m/address//<m/len/</cf> and all its	subnets.
	<cf><m/address//<m/len/-</cf> is a shorthand for
	<cf><m/address//<m/len/{0,<m/len/}</cf>, that means network prefix
	<cf><m/address//<m/len/</cf> and all its supernets (network prefixes
	that contain it).

	For example, <cf>[,,,{16,24}
	]</cf> matches prefix <cf></cf>, all subprefixes of
	<cf></cf>, all superprefixes of <cf></cf> and prefixes
	<cf/4.X.X.X/ whose prefix length is 16 to 24. <cf>[{20,24} ]</cf>
	matches all prefixes (regardless of IP address) whose prefix length is
	20 to 24, <cf>[ ]</cf> matches any prefix that contains IP
	address <cf></cf>. <cf> &tilde; [{15,17} ]</cf>
	is true, but <cf> &tilde; [ ]</cf> is false.

	Cisco-style patterns like <cf> ge 16 le 24</cf> can be expressed
	in BIRD as <cf>{16,24}</cf>, <cf> le 24</cf> as
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	<cf>{16,24}</cf> and <cf> ge 24</cf> as

	<tag><label id="type-enum">enum</tag>
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	Enumeration types are fixed sets of possibilities. You can't define your
	own variables of such type, but some route attributes are of enumeration
	type. Enumeration types are incompatible with each other.

	<tag><label id="type-bgppath">bgppath</tag>
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	BGP path is a list of autonomous system numbers. You can't write
	literals of this type. There are several special operators on bgppaths: